Online Chess Betting in India 2024

Written by Sportcafe Desc.

Last Updated: .

SportsCafe is visited daily by millions of users who want to bet on chess tournaments. Our experts have compiled an up-to-date rating of the best bookmakers that accept Indian users. The sites were tested according to dozens of criteria, as a result of a comprehensive analysis, the safest bookmakers with profitable bonuses and fast money withdrawal were selected.

Best Chess Betting Bookmakers

What is Online Chess Betting?

Online chess betting refers to the practice of placing bets on events related to chess games or tournaments via internet platforms or websites. Our experts checked several hundred websites and mobile applications and compiled a rating of safe sites where you can bet on chess. The emergence of online chess betting sites has made it easier for fans to follow chess events and place bets from the comfort of their home.

Top 10 Best Online Betting Bookmakers (May 2024)

If you want to bet on chess, we strongly recommend you to use well-known and trustworthy platforms, which are licensed and authorized by the competent authorities. They give you the opportunity of secure and regulated betting activities. Furthermore, these betting sites offer a huge selection of chess games and tournaments. This is why, after a thorough analysis, the experts compiled this list, ranking the 10 best platforms you can see and evaluate below:

Rank Rating Bonus Link




Welcome bonus

INR 30,000







Welcome bonus

INR 20,000


No Promo





Welcome bonus

INR 39,000







Welcome bonus

INR 34,000







Welcome bonus

INR 10,000


No Promo





Welcome bonus

INR 8,000







Welcome bonus

INR 20,000







Welcome bonus

INR 8,000







Welcome bonus

INR 7,500


No Promo





Welcome bonus

INR 60,000



List of the Best Chess Betting Bookmakers in India 2024 by SportsCafe

SportsCafe experts help millions of users choose a sports betting platform. Hundreds of bookmakers were tested according to dozens of criteria, including security, accessibility to users from India, minimum deposit, bonus conditions and others. The best chess betting bookmakers are presented below:

  1. Parimatch;
  2. Batery;
  3. MegaPari;
  4. Mostbet;
  5. 22bet;
  6. 888starz;
  7. Melbet;
  8. Paripesa;
  9. Tez888;
  10. 4rabet.

Why Should I Choose the Parimatch for Chess Betting

Most Indians choose Parimatch to bet on chess games.

Parimatch was ranked first by the experts. There are a number of chess events to choose from, including both national and international ones. The site allows you to select chess games and tournaments from many different countries around the world and place various types of bets. Below are the key benefits:

  • Low minimum deposit is just 200 INR;
  • High Welcome bonuses: 150% up to INR 30,000;
  • Dozens of payment methods are available, including cryptocurrency;
  • Support 24/7;
  • High odds;
  • Multifunctional Parimatch app is available for Android, iOS, and Windows.

Why Should I Choose the Batery for Online Chess Betting

Batery supports most payment methods for online chess betting.

Indian players consider the Batery site the best for betting on chess. This is not surprising, as the site operates under an official Curacao license and is considered one of the safest to use in India. With a wide range of chess events, users can choose games and tournaments from different countries to place a wide variety of bets. Check out the list of top benefits that influence your choice of a betting site:

  • Legality and safety in India (official license Curacao);
  • Live streaming of matches;
  • Nice interface and easy navigation;
  • Favourable odds;
  • Accepts INR;
  • Big Welcome Bonus of 200% up to 20,000 INR;
  • Availability of a separate Batery app for Android and IOS;
  • 24-hour bookmaker support service.

Why Should I Choose the MegaPari for Online Chess Betting

Megapari is legal for betting on chess games.

Despite the fact that it was only established in 2019, Megapari has already gained the Indian’s audience’s trust. According to the experts, it is one of the best platforms to bet online on chess worldwide and is loved by the bettors because it offers:

  • An incredible number of chess games and tournaments on the site and app;
  • Impressive number for the new players - more than 39,000 INR for sport bets and Casino Welcome Bonus up to 133,308 INR+ 150 FS;
  • Localisation in Hindi;
  • Modern Megapari app for Android and iOS with a user-friendly design.

Why Should I Choose the Mostbet for Online Chess Betting

Immerse yourself in the world of chess betting with Mostbet.

Mostbet has earned a stellar reputation as a leading choice for sports betting enthusiasts, thanks to its unwavering commitment to transparency and user satisfaction. The platform provides a wide array of betting options, ensuring an engaging and equitable betting experience for all users:

  • Start your chess betting journey with a minimum deposit of just 300 INR;
  • Engage in chess betting with placing bets in INR;
  • Access a wide array of over 1000 sports events daily, including thrilling chess tournaments;
  • Easily register with just one click, whether you're using the Mostbet app or the website;
  • Benefit from around-the-clock customer support including via the social networks.

Why Should I Choose the 22bet for Online Chess Betting

You can get an impressive experience of chess betting with 22bet.

22bet has positioned itself as the ideal online chess betting destination, offering a wide range of chess events. The platform's user-friendly interface makes it easy to navigate, making it suitable for beginners and experienced bettors alike. The site can also be selected for betting thanks to special advantages:

  • Live streaming options;
  • Available minimum deposit amount (Rs. 80);
  • Quick payouts (UPI, PhonePe, PayTM and others);
  • Welcome Bonus of 100% up to Rs. 10,000.

Why Should I Choose the 888starz for Online Chess Betting

888starz is the most accessible platform for for betting on chess games online.

888starz is an excellent online chess betting platform that attracts enthusiasts with its variety of chess events and competitive odds. The site's strength is its user-friendly interface, ensuring a seamless betting experience. With live streaming capabilities and reliable services, 888starz provides a dynamic and exciting environment for chess enthusiasts, and offers customers the following distinctive features:

  • Low minimum deposit amount Rs. 80;
  • Wide range of payment methods;
  • Welcome bonus of 100% up to Rs. 8,760.

Why Should I Choose the Melbet for Online Chess Betting

Melbet is one of the most popular chess betting platforms.

The experts believe that Melbet is one of the leading sports betting platforms for bets on chess. This is not by chance. Well, many of the reasons are explained below:

  • A large selection of events, many chess tournaments are available;
  • Available in Hindi;
  • Multiple Welcome bonus options: you can choose between Sports Welcome offer - 100% match on 1st deposit up to 20,000 INR or a free bet offer – up to 2,150 INR in free bets;
  • Melbet app for Android and iOS which grants you stable operations and traffic saving for your mobile devices.

Why Should I Choose the Paripesa for Online Chess Betting

Discover the perfect platform to fulfill your chess ambitions with Paripesa.

Since its inception in 2019, Paripesa has swiftly ascended to become a premier destination for chess admirers, offering an unparalleled gaming process and unwavering commitment to excellence. The brand has firmly established itself as the epitome of thrilling chess encounters and unwavering dedication to providing top-tier services.

  • Over 3000 sports events annually;
  • World of chess with 10 or more events available every day;
  • A minimal deposit requirement of just 100 INR;
  • A generous 100% welcome bonus of up to 10,000 INR;
  • Free Paripesa app for Indian clients.

Why Should I Choose the Tez888 for Online Chess Betting

Tez888 provides a diverse experience for chess players of all skill levels.

Tez888, a young and renowned brand in online betting since 2023, presents a host of features tailored to enhance the betting experience for enthusiasts. With its focus on chess, Tez888 offers a unique platform for players passionate about the game.

  • Welcome Bonuses of up to 35,000 INR;
  • Fast withdrawals, typically processed within 2-4 hours;
  • Tez888 app is not only lightning-fast but also equipped with all the essential features you need;
  • Special promotions and offers designed exclusively for chess devotees;
  • Up to 5 chess events and tournaments.

Why Should I Choose the 4rabet for Online Chess Betting

4rabet stands as a reliable choice for those seeking a comprehensive platform for chess betting.

4rabet, founded in 2019 and operating under a Curacao License, stands as a prominent name in the world of online betting. The platform offers a myriad of features tailored to enhance the wagering adventure, with a specific focus on chess, providing a dedicated platform for players passionate about the game.

  • Minimum deposit of only 300 INR;
  • Up to 10 chess tournaments available for betting, including Grandmaster events, online championships, and regional competitions;
  • Exclusive promo codes and bonuses up to 20,000 INR specifically designed for chess admirers;
  • Dedicated 24/7 customer support;
  • 4rabet mobile app is completely legal and ensures 100% security for its users.

How to Choose Chess Betting Sites in India?

Even though there are vast numbers of gambling platforms offering chess wagering options nowadays, it can occasionally be not so easy to find a reputable and suitable chess betting website. To choose a really good platform to gamble on chess, you should consider a number of factors, such as:

  • Availability in India and language support;
  • Data protection and security;
  • License;
  • Competitive odds;
  • Bonus size;
  • Variety of payment methods;
  • Diversity of chess games and tournaments.

That’s why we've compiled this list above with 10 best chess betting sites in India for you after collecting all these criteria and reviewing a big number of bookmakers. They are fully regulated and licensed, carry out activities in accordance with Indian legislation, and provide security and data protection. In addition, they offer simple deposits and withdrawals, reasonable odds, significant bonuses on sports and casino, and a significant number of chess games and tournaments:

How to Choose Chess Betting Mobile Apps in India?

According to the statistics, more and more gamblers tend to use mobile phones to make bets on sports or play casino games. And especially in India, where there are more than 700 million smartphone users. Of course, each platform has its mobile version, suitable for phones and tablets. But for sure, the access from the mobile browser has a number of disadvantages, such as lower performance, large memory consumptions and others. That’s why all the best bookmakers have developed their mobile apps which are better than PC and mobile versions for a variety of reasons:

  • Quick access to your bets;
  • Fast performance;
  • Consume less mobile traffic;
  • They are frequently updated, which leads to reducing bugs and critical errors;
  • Many extra bonuses available, inaccessible on other versions.

To choose a decent chess betting app, you should first of all keep in mind the following criteria:

  • Users feedbacks;
  • Performance of the application;
  • Choice of chess games and tournaments;
  • App’s design and functionality;
  • High bonuses, including extra app bonuses;
  • Update frequency.

However, it may take a long time to unite all these criteria and find really good chess betting apps. But there’s actually no need for it, because our experts already prepared for you excellent apps where you can place bets on chess.




Welcome Bonus

App Rating

Required Space

Min. Deposit


Min. Withdrawal



Parimatch App

Android, iOS, Windows

150% up to 30,000 INR for betting and 150% up to 105,000 INR for Casino


100 MB




Batery App

Android, iOS

200% up to 25,000 INR






Megapari App

Android, iOS

Sports Welcome Bonus up to 39,000 INR and Casino Welcome Bonus uo to 133,308 INR + 150 FS


50 MB




Melbet App

Android, iOS

100% up to 20,000 INR


150 MB




Indibet App


200% up to 10,000 INR


40 MB




Khelraja App

Android, iOS

300% up to 50,000 INR


20 MB




1win App

Android, iOS

500% up to 80,400 INR


150 MB




Dafabet App

Android, iOS

200% up to 20,000 INR


50 MB




4rabet App

Android, iOS

600% up to 60,000 INR


16,11 MB




Betandyou App

Android, iOS

100% up to 9,000 INR


87 MB



Is Chess Betting Legal?

According to the Indian laws, chess is a game of skill and not of chance, that’s why it is totally legal in India. Therefore, you can freely bet on it without being afraid to break the law.

How to Play Online Chess Betting in India

Placing bets on chess involves the same process as betting on any other sport, and is quite simple. You won’t have any problems with this, since virtually all bookmakers use a similar algorithm. To place a bet on chess, you need to follow these steps:

  • Access the platform where you will bet on chess and create your account;
  • Log into your account and top up your balance;
  • Select the chess match and the grandmaster you wish to bet on;
  • Think about the size of your bet and enter it;
  • Make your bet and wait for the game or tournament result.

Chess Betting Markets

Chess betting is rather popular in India and there are plenty of markets to place your bets on chess. It should be noted that betting on the tournament winner is far from being the only option for chess betting online. You can learn more here, seeing a list of the most widespread betting markets, compiled by our experts.

Outright Winner

"Outright Winner" is a popular betting market in chess and many other sports. Here, you're placing a bet on the chess player or group that will win an entire tournament or competition, rather than separate matches or certain competition-related events.

In the case of chess, this means that you are predicting who exactly will be the overall winner of the entire tournament, not just one game or round. You place a bet before the tournament starts, and if your chosen grandmaster wins the tournament, you receive your winnings.

"Overall winner" bets are usually available at major chess tournaments such as national championships, world championships and prestigious global events such as the Candidates Tournament. Outright winner betting odds can vary significantly depending on player ratings, previous results and the overall competitiveness of the event.

Match Winner

In chess betting, Match Winner refers to a popular betting market where you predict the winner of a particular chess match or game. In chess tournaments, players compete against each other in separate matches, and each match usually has a winner and a loser (or it may end in a draw).

When you bet on a match winner, you choose one of the players to win a particular game. If your chosen player wins at the end of the match, your bet will win and you will receive a payout according to the odds offered by the bookmaker. On the other hand, if the player you bet on loses or the game ends in a draw, you will lose your bet.

For example, if there is a chess match between Player A and Player B and you place a Match Winner bet on Player A, you will win your bet if Player A wins the game. If Player B wins or the game ends in a draw, your bet will be a loser.

This betting market is common in chess tournaments and is one of the easy options for those interested in betting on individual chess games.

Opening Move

In this market, you place a bet on the specific opening move that will be played as the first move of the chess game. You might bet on whether the first move will be 1. e4, 1. d4, 1. Nf3, for instance, or any other specific move.

It's essential to understand that betting on individual moves in chess can be highly unpredictable, as the opening move is just the beginning of a complex game. Additionally, the odds for such specific bets may be less favorable compared to other more traditional betting markets, like the overall match winner or tournament winner.

Number of Moves

"Number of Moves" is a popular chess betting market where you predict the total number of moves that will be played in a specific chess game or match. This type of bet is based on how long the game is expected to last or how quickly it might conclude.

When placing a "Number of Moves" bet, you typically have options like:

  1. Over/Under: Bets on whether the total number of moves played will be above or below a certain threshold set by the platform. For example, if the bookmaker sets the threshold at 40.5 moves, you will be able to bet on either “Over 40.5 moves” or “Under 40.5 moves”.
  2. Exact Number of Moves: Betting on the precise number of moves you believe will be played in the game. This can be a more challenging bet to win, but the potential payout is higher.

The number of moves in a chess game can differ significantly based on the players' playing styles, the opening choices, and the overall strategy employed during the match. Some games can be short and decisive, while others may be long and hard-fought battles.

This betting market is popular for specific high-profile chess events or matches, especially those involving top-level players or championship games. It adds an extra layer of excitement for chess enthusiasts and bettors who enjoy predicting the dynamics and length of a chess game.

Popular Events for Chess Betting

Although the number of chess matches and tournaments is not measured by hundreds, there is a decent number of them that attract attention from Indian chess enthusiasts and bettors. Some of them are world-famous, and others are to a lesser extent. Some of them take place regularly, once in a certain period, and others can happen at any time. Learn more about the most significant events and tournaments which are for sure the best choice for chess lovers to bet on.

Chess World Championship Betting

The World Chess Championship is the most significant chess event that attracts a global audience, with lots of chess enthusiasts, players and gamblers. It is held twice a year: in October and November and comprises a series of games played over several weeks, which provides a huge number of possibilities to make bets on! World Chess Championship matches are known for their intensity and strategic depth. Due to its global importance and a large number of sponsors involved it implies a substantial prize fund, and the only champion can get about one million of euro.

FIDE Grand Prix Betting

The FIDE Grand Prix is a series of prestigious chess tournaments held by FIDE. These games, which are a part of the World Chess Championship cycle, provide participants a chance to earn a place in the Candidates Tournament, where the World Chess Championship challenger is chosen. Betting options for FIDE Grand Prix events might consist in predicting the winners of individual tournaments or overall winners of the whole series.

Candidates Tournament Betting

The Candidates Tournament is a very significant chess competition arranged by FIDE, which brings together the most outstanding chess players from around the globe to make the cut to the World Chess Championship. Betting on it might include options such as predicting the champion of the tournament, individual match outcomes, or even the player who goes through the selection for the World Chess Championship.

Super-Tournaments Betting

Super-tournaments are typically elite events held at various locations around the world, and they attract a lot of attention from chess lovers and bettors alike. Some of the most prominent super-tournaments include the Tata Steel Chess Tournament, the Sinquefield Cup, the Norway Chess Tournament, and the London Chess Classic, among others.

Super-tournaments offer a variety of betting opportunities, namely: side bets on individual player performances, such as the number of wins or draws, as well as wagers on the outcome of the entire tournament.

Live Chess Betting

Live chess betting, also known as in-play chess betting or live betting, allows players to bet on chess games while the game is being played. Live betting gives players the opportunity to react to events occurring during a match and place bets in real time, as opposed to traditional pre-match betting where all bets are placed before the game.

In recent years, live chess betting has grown in popularity since it increases the thrill and involvement of the betting experience. Thus, the gamblers can follow the game, analyze player performance, and make better decisions depending on the course of the game.

Chess Betting Odds

Chess betting odds are typically displayed in one of three ways:

  • Fractional Odds, such as 4/1, 5/2, or 1/4. The first number represents the possible gain, and the second number represents the necessary investment. For instance, if you successfully wagered 100 INR on 4/1 odds , you would get 400 INR overall (profit + initial bet);
  • Decimal Odds: Displayed as a decimal value, such as 3.50, 4.00, or 1.25. You multiply the amount you wager by the decimal odds to determine your possible winnings. If you placed a 100 INR wager on 3.50 odds and won, for instance, your total payout would be 350 INR (profit plus initial bet);
  • American Odds: Also called moneyline odds, represented with a positive (+) or negative (-) sign (e.g., +100, -150, +250). Positive odds indicate potential profit on a 100 INR bet, while negative odds stand for the amount you need to bet to win 100 INR. For example, +200 means you are able to win 200 INR on a 100 INR stake, and -150 stands for your need to bet 150 INR to receive 100 INR.

Ahead of the event, keep in mind that the odds could alter depending on betting activity and other variables. Additionally, odds may vary somewhat between sportsbooks, so it's a good idea to compare bookmakers’ odds to find the best deal.

Chess Betting Predictions

Chess betting predictions refer to forecasts or educated guesses made by individuals or experts about the possible outcomes of chess games, tournaments, or specific betting markets related to chess events. These predictions are based on various factors and analyses that can influence the outcome of a chess event.

Factors that may be considered in chess betting predictions include:

  • Player Ratings and performances;
  • Head-to-Head Records;
  • Opening Repertoire and Preparation;
  • Time Control;
  • Tournament Format;
  • Venue and Playing Conditions;
  • Psychological Factors.

Chess betting predictions are typically offered by chess analysts, enthusiasts, or experts who closely follow the chess world and have a deep understanding of the game. These predictions are often shared on various platforms, such as chess forums, social media, or specialized betting websites.

However, it is crucial to remember that chess, like any competitive sport, is inherently unpredictable. Even the strongest players can experience surprising losses or upsets, making predictions uncertain and never guaranteed. Therefore, if you decide to engage in chess betting, exercise caution, and gamble responsibly within your means.

Chess Betting Tips and Strategies

When it comes to chess betting, it's essential to approach it with a strategic mindset and follow some tips to make informed decisions and enhance your overall betting experience. Here are some chess betting tips and strategies to consider:

  1. Research Player Performance: Before placing any bets, research the grandmaster’ recent performances, Elo ratings, and form. Look for patterns in their results and analyze their results against opponents of different skill levels;
  2. Study Head-to-Head Records: Examine the historical head-to-head records between the players. Some players might have a particular advantage or struggle against specific opponents, which can be imperative in predicting match outcomes;
  3. Consider Time Controls: Different players excel in various time controls (classical, rapid, blitz). You should bear in mind the time control of the game, as it can affect the dynamics of the game and the players' performance;
  4. Follow Tournament Format: Understand the tournament format, as it can impact players' strategies and performances. Some players may be better suited to knockout-style events, while others excel in round-robin tournaments;
  5. Stay Updated on News and Announcements: Keep track of any news, injuries, or unexpected developments that could influence a player's performance. In chess, factors like health, travel, and preparation can all play a role in a player's performance;
  6. Analyze Opening Repertoire: Knowing the players' opening repertoire and preferences can provide insights into their playing style and potential advantages they might have in certain openings;
  7. Watch Previous Games: Watching previous games of the players can help you to learn better their strengths, weaknesses, and tactical tendencies;
  8. Manage Your Bankroll: Set a budget for your chess betting and stick to it. Avoid chasing losses and be disciplined in your betting approach;
  9. Consider Live Betting: In some chess events, live betting (in-play betting) may be available. This can allow you to observe the flow of the game and make more informed bets based on the current position;
  10. Use Reputable Betting Platforms: Choose reputable and licensed sports betting platforms for your chess betting activities to ensure fair play and timely payouts;
  11. Evaluate Betting Odds: Compare odds from different betting platforms to get the best value for your bets.

Bear in mind that there is no betting strategy that is foolproof, and gambling always carries risks. We advise to bet responsibly and not wager more than you can afford to lose. Additionally, avoid emotional decisions and only place bets after making thorough analysis and research. Chess is a highly complex and unpredictable game, so even the most informed predictions can result in unexpected outcomes.

Deposit Methods for Online Chess Betting

The selection and availability of payment means mostly depends on the betting site. However, it should be noted that most of the bookmakers analyzed above accept most of these deposit methods for betting, which are widely accepted among Indian users:

  • Credit and Debit cards (Mastercard, Visa);
  • Electronic payment systems (Skrill, Neteller and others);
  • E-wallets (Astropay, Muchbetter and others);
  • Vouchers (Neosurf and others);
  • Prepaid cards (Paysafecard, Khelocard, etc.);
  • Cryptocurrency (Bitcoin, Ethereum, Tron, etc.).

Conclusion by SportsCafe

After making a careful research of the Indian chess betting market, we outlined a list of the top 10 online chess betting sites that will satisfy both professionals and amateurs of chess betting:

  • Parimatch;
  • Batery;
  • MegaPari;
  • Mostbet;
  • 22bet;
  • 888Starz;
  • Melbet;
  • Paripesa;
  • Tez888;
  • 4rabet.

As you already understand, the choice fell on them due to a number of undeniable advantages, which we will repeat below:

  • 100% safe and secure;
  • Rich selection of chess tournaments and games;
  • Functional and high-quality mobile apps;
  • Offer significant bonuses.

As we've already discussed below, betting on chess is 100% legal, because it's considered a game of skill. There are plenty of events to bet on, but we strongly advise to thoroughly learn tips and strategies before, and never place large bets at the start.


All of the main chess betting platforms offer you the qualified and fast support and provide a quick answer to any of your questions and doubts. However, this section with the most frequent questions will help to dispel some of your doubts.

How to Bet on Chess?

Actually, betting on chess is quite the same as betting on other sports or events, but there are some specific aspects to consider due to the nature of the game. Here's a brief guide on how to bet on chess:

  1. Choose a reputable betting platform and create your account on it;
  2. Deposit some money, sufficient to make a bet;
  3. Browse chess betting markets;
  4. Select a Chess game or tournament to bet on it;
  5. Explore betting options;
  6. Find out more information about players and games, plan your tactics and strategy;
  7. Place your bet on a site or app;
  8. Follow the game and withdraw your winnings.

Is Chess Betting Legal in India?

Chess is absolutely legal in India because it is a game of skill rather than chance, in accordance with Indian law. As a result, you are free to bet on it without worrying about breaking the law.

Can I Get Chess Bet Bonuses?

Whether you can get chess bet bonuses depends on the betting platform you choose and its current promotional offers. Some sportsbooks might offer bonuses for major chess events like the World Chess Championship, Candidates Tournament, or other prestigious tournaments to attract more bettors.

To find out if chess bet bonuses are available, you should:

  • Research Betting Platforms: Look for reputable sports betting platforms that offer chess betting options. Check their websites or mobile apps for any ongoing promotions or bonuses related to chess;
  • Check Promotional Pages: Many sportsbooks have dedicated promotional pages where they list their current offers. Look for any bonuses related to chess betting on these pages;
  • Subscribe to Newsletters: Some sportsbooks send promotional offers and bonuses to their subscribers through email newsletters. Consider subscribing to receive updates on any exclusive chess betting bonuses;
  • Follow Social Media: Follow the social media accounts of sportsbooks to stay updated on their latest promotions and bonuses, which may include chess betting offers;
  • Check terms and conditions associated with the bonus. First of all, carefully read about betting conditions, profile and verification requirements and possible restrictions before applying to the bonus.

How do I Deposit Money Online?

The procedure is quite similar throughout all the chess betting sites. First, you need to register with the betting platform. You must then enter your account, proceed to the deposit section, select a desired payment option from those offered on the website, and continue. Be aware of the required minimum deposits, as well as any additional fees that the provider may charge. However, we advise you to make your first deposit so that it is sufficient to receive the welcome bonus.